Assessment and evaluation of potentials for a low-carbon development strategy in Kazakhstan

The Paris Agreement invites countries to develop long-term strategies to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These strategies provide important guidance for low-carbon economic development until the middle of the century and can inform the enhancement of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). Kazakhstan is currently working on a long-term strategy for low-emission development until 2050 in order to define the path towards necessary socio-economic change, stimulate reform processes in all economic sectors and create planning and investment security.

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH supports the strategy elaboration process, which is steered by the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources of Kazakhstan. This process involves several steps. The first is the creation of a political vision of how Kazakhstan could become a low-emission economy and achieve its development goals. Based on this vision, different scenarios of greenhouse gas reduction and their costs and benefits are modelled, which enables the creation of a final strategy document. Participation formats for the many different stakeholders are an essential part of the overall strategy process.

adelphi assisted GIZ with an extensive stocktake and scoping of previous climate and sustainability policy as well as existing strategy and planning documents for Kazakhstan. These documents outline medium- to long-term goals and development paths, covering the sectors energy, industry, transport, buildings, agriculture, land use and waste. The stocktake also explored the potential to increase the current level of ambition in reducing GHG emissions. The aim of this work was to ensure that the political vision of the strategy ties in with existing measures and guides ambitious changes towards low-carbon development in all sectors – development that is in line with Kazakhstan's overall goals. In addition to the analysis of the policy documents and secondary literature, the inventory was based on interviews with ministries and experts as well as the discussions and outcomes of six sectoral stakeholder consultation workshops, designed according to an interactive method. Three local experts supported adelphi on site.